Removing Cast in Hard Jaws from Earlier Vises

If you have a Mill then removing these cast in jaws are not to difficult. The secret is Rigidity of Setup. What I mean is the vise has to be tied down tight and the Dynamic shimmed equally on three sides using feeler gages (top and both sides) and the Dynamic tightened on a spacer block right under the jaw towers. A little bit of hand work on the block to fit the casting, I like to use Aluminum.

Align the Static with a indicator and I know the needle bounces but moving slow you can align it pretty good. then I like to find center of the two jaws. I sweep the center in with a indicator but a edge finder works too. The reason I find center of the opening is that I cut the jaw side depth to the same numbers so the same thickness jaws will look even when installed.

When you are ready to remove the jaws I have found using the side of a carbide endmill gave me the best results. I purchase 10 3/8 carbide endmills for a $100 and use them for this cut. I can get by with ruining two cutters per vise. As for the cut I use a machine with no backlash so I can cut conventual or a climb cut. If using a Bridgeport type machine then Climb cut is the only way I would cut due to having the cutter pull into the work. Any vibration would chip the edges. I go .010 per cut lift the cutter go back and dial in another .010. and I like using coolant. Note the hard material showing up when getting close to cast material, I added a pic. The tool pressure will be noticeable when you reach cast material. Most cast in jaws are 1/2″ deep, the Reeds have a special hard insert with undercuts and watching the cut you will see when the hard material is removed. The hard material must be removed so drilling and tapping holes is easier and you are not drilling into hard material.

I am a jaw builder so I had plenty of jaw choices, sometimes I have to build a custom jaw but I try to fit a set of Wilton jaws since they are still available to purchase. I like to have at least a 1/16th to an 1/8″ above the jaw towers to hand finish the tops, some jaws I radius the tops by hand and some I like them to be flat across. Cut your depth to the correct number. I always use a brand new endmill for the finish cuts, this ensures a straight wall for the back side of your jaws.

I will note that if you are clamping a stationary vise to your table you must first flatten the base. If not then shimming is needed and that is trouble with all the tool pressure needed in removing the hard jaws. I like to level the slide surface above the dove tails that the slide sits on. I use a long precision parallel and use a indicator to level the vise. Having the base parallel to the slide keeps the jaw cuts perpendicular to the slide. Every vise has a different method of clamping to your mill. I do not think I tied down the Static the same way on two vises. Make sure it is ridged and always cut in a direction that will not grab and pull the vise into the cutter if it comes loose.

Charles Parker # 79

Once the jaw pockets are cut then adding the tapped holes is the next step. One way is to use the jaws as a guide and try by hand to drill the tap drill size hole straight and centered and not all the wat thru, if doing it this way I like to clamp the jaws in place and stake the center with spotting punches. I would spot one hole then drill and tap then add a screw in the first hole and do the other side. I have got away doing it this way on very big vises that would not fit in my mill. The preferred way is using a Bridgeport type machine and a large angle plate to clamp the Dynamic or Static in place. First I indicate the jaw face flat then align the jaw shoulder perpendicular so everything is square and parallel. Then I find the jaw shoulder with a edge finder and move to the center of the jaw screw hole. Then find center of the vise either with a indicator or a edge finder. It is important to have the threaded holes centered to the vise so the jaws are not sticking out on one side and not the other.

Reed 207 Static
Reed 207 Dynamic

This method works for me. Getting these old quality vises back in shape gives you a good feeling and makes the vise’s worth much more.

Reed 103 with stepped jaws like a Starrett.

Restoring Bench Vises. Charles Parker 275 Swivel Jaw

Charles Parker #275. 6-1/2″ jaws that opens to 9-3/4 and weights 165lbs,

 

I bought this Parker 275 vise from a maintenance worker that worked at the former Stapleton International Airport in Denver.  It is a very old Swivel jaw and swivel base vise since it had the swivel release from under the bench. Before Parker mastered the swivel base on top of the bench. 

I knew I was going to make new jaws and recut the 3 degree taper after fitting the jaws. But what I did not know is that the dovetail that holds in the nut was broken, I am sure someone opened it up past the 9-1/2” max opening and beat on something.  Also the swivel jaw rotating diameter also was broke and half assed brazed. Two major repairs. I start with the dovetail repair.

The dovetail repair was challenging, I studied it for a couple hours, rolled the heavy Static support over and over and finally figured out a way to locate the dovetails while the Static was upside down. I was amazed at how accurate this casting is. I swept in the base diameter with my indicator and with careful numbers that I saved from the inspection I then new how far in the dovetail is and was impressed by seeing how centered the dovetail was.   I wanted to remove all the broken casting and replace it with two steel inserts that has the dovetail recut in them.  Just like fixing a broken Plastic Injection Mold. I already designed the geometry I needed and built the steel blanks before hand. The rest was just cutting. I built a two piece which made it easier to build and bolt in place.

The swivel jaw repair was not easy either till I figured out a way to hold the swivel jaw. Once I made the aluminum holder I started cutting the braze repair till I had good casting and it was very close to the center of the 11/32 round groove. I machined a pocket to give the steel insert more mass and a way to add screws. I recut the .171 radius till I had a perfect fit for the side pin that Parker uses to keep the swivel jaw in place.

The 6-5/8 wide jaws wasn’t to hard to make since I have built many of these. The heat Treater did a nice job on the Heat draw back color.

The numbers are gaps in thousands that needs adjusting.

When the jaws were completed and fit I re machined the swivel pin taper but first I had to remove the pin, this is how I did it.

Built a new handle, added a 7/16:14 set screw with a 3/8 ball bearing backed up by a spring for the handle tension-er to hold up the 13/16 (.812) handle with 1-3/4 ball ends in any position.

Recut the Collar area and fit the collar like it is suppose to be, had to make a 1/8” Bronze washer to tighten up the backlash. Added a new nut pin and built a spacer block to tighten the slop in the forward and back movement of the nut that had a (1/16) gap.

Finished the vise with Black Oil from Sculpt Nouveau and tried out the Matte Clear Guard which is a Lacquer clear coat. Dries pretty quick and only time will tell how it holds up.

Vise came out how I expected, the movement feels like a heavy vise that it is, it just feels right. I am the happiest doing work like this.  I am selling this vise for $750 + shipping if anyone is interested, contact me at mountainproduct@gmail.com.  Thanks Kevin Scott.

Charles Parker 275,  6-1/2: Jaws that opens to 9-3/4″ and weights 165lbs.

Fixing tail cracks in vises

I have repaired several tail cracks in big and small vises like this Reed 109 ( 9″ jaws), a big vise. There is several ways to repair these cracks and this is one way I feel is a good fix.

Reed 109.

First I drill a 3/16 hole at the end of the crack, this stops the crack from spreading. I then use a carbide ball burr and groove out the crack. I like to groove at least a 1/4″ deep and at least a 1/4 wide more does not hurt. 

 

 

 

 

The next step is to clean the crack as best as you can, The vise should have been de-greased before starting the repair.  Heat is a good way to clean the crack.  I like to heat the area to at least 400 degrees and use a SS brush to remove the burnt crud.

After I spent about a good 1/2 hour of heat I then let it cool.  Next step is pinching the tail down to bury a Socket Head Cap Screw. I use my milling machine and my toe clamps to pinch it to the correct thickness.  I have gauge blocks that I can stack up to the same thickness as the front of the square slider. Using a dial caliper works too.  Your drill press has tee slots to clamp down the slider too. You can do this repair without a milling machine.

 

I slow down at this point and take careful measurements to be sure the cap screw is centered in the thickest area of the web and as far back as you can.  I like to drill the screw body to the center of the square slider and past the crack, then drill the tap drill size at least 3/4″ more.  I have long series taps and if working on a bigger vise you will need one to.

I do not use oil on the tap, you do not want to add any contaminates before welding or brazing.  Use a magnet to remove the chips, air is not enough. Use a end mill or a counterbore cutter that matches the socket screw.  I go deeper by a 1/4″ to add a plug.

Add the screw and tighten it as tight as you dare. Check to be sure you did not bottom out. Add a plug and peen it in tight and be sure it is higher so you can sand or cut it down to match the side of the slider. Two screws are better then on if you have the room. Ready for welding or brazing.

I like to weld since I have several different rod choices to use even though I feel brazing is as good or even better.  First you have to reheat the casting, I have a pyrometer I purchased off of e-bay for around $30. Heat slowly up to 400 to 500 degrees.

All sorts of welding rods can be used, I have Inconel, Nickle, Silicon Bronze and Eutectic 224 Tig rod.  Brass and Silver Solder works too.  I have found through experience that sometimes the 224 rod works or the Inconel bonds with the casting. Just never know until you try it. I keep the heating of the casting going till I am ready to weld. I like to tack weld in several spots before pouring on the heat and welding.

After welding and reheating to over 400 degrees I like to peen the weld, this does two things, fist it stress re-leaves the weldment and second it swells the material around the weld so when you remove the weld you do not see sink at the eutectic zone of the weld.  Heat again to over 400 degrees and cover with a blanket or what I use is old leather gloves and cover as much as I can to slow the cooling.  Clean off the weld with what works for you, I use my mill and your done.

Good luck.

 

 

 

Chas Parker Collars

Parker Collars like their jaws have to be custom fit.  Parker did not make their parts simple. The jaws were all hand fit and stamped with ID numbers to keep them with the right vise where the Collars were just bolted on to rough casting in many of their models.  This gives a un even wear or rub of the Spindle when opening the vise.  Not really a big deal unless you like little backlash.   I am sure you have seen some with a stack of shims to eliminate some of the backlash. Here is how I fit the Collars I make and sell on my website HERE.

To find which collar to purchase first you need to take a few measurements. I ask that you measure the large diameter of your vise casting since this is a good start and weeds out many sizes.

Parker 204 Collar Fitting 1-2018 (17)

On each Collar listing I add a machinist drawing and on the listing description I list this dimension as the width.  On the drawing I list the width of the top part of the Collar where it bolts up to the vise.

Parker 204 Collar Fitting 1-2018 (16)

The next dimension that is important is from the shoulder to the center of the mounting threads. This dimension is listed in the description as center of hole to shoulder and the dimension I list is the maximum your vise can be. This means if your vise measures less then no problem if it measures more then I need to alter the collar for you. To find this dimension first I measure the thread hole diameter.

Parker 204 Collar Fitting 1-2018 (21)

I divide this number by two and add it to this measurementParker 204 Collar Fitting 1-2018 (20)This example says the shoulder to the hole center is .210.

Next the collar needs to be fit in the depth area. The collar has two radial bosses that form the major diameter of the collar and rest and wrap around the Spindle lip.  There is three surfaces that need to all touch evenly for a proper fit. I have machines that cut the two steps evenly but if you do not have access to a milling machine then it has to be done with angle grinders and files. Look at this picture of a 954 Parker collar area that is raw casting on both levels. Also show a broken screw but hat was fairly easy to pull out.

Parker954 collar casting

Here is how I cut my two levels on the Parker Dynamic Jaw Support.

Parker 204 Collar Fitting 1-2018 (9)I then cut the next level so I can match the collar level;s

Parker 204 Collar Fitting 1-2018 (11)Again this will have to be done with a file to do it the right way.  I did the math with this collar steps and it should fit like this.

Parker 204 Collar Fitting 1-2018 (13)If you want to eliminate backlash then you will either shorten the two ears and adjust the casting for a close gap between the collar and spindle lip or add Stainless Steel shims or a rather thick one like this one below.

995 collar (3)

I wish there was a easier way to fit these collars.  i am showing the best way but these Parker collars will work just bolting them on since most were never fit properly.

 

Cutting Serrations on Jaw Faces

Customers ask how to cut serrations in the jaw faces. Here’s how I do it.

There are a couple ways of doing it.  One is using a metal shaper, which pushes an angle cutter through the steel.  Or maybe with a Bridgeport type machine you could tilt the head and use the corner of a carbide end-mill to cut the grooves.

I decided to build a fixture.  It holds carbide tipped slitting saws or carbide tipped side mill cutters with a 1″ ID 4″ OD, and range from 1/2″ thick to 3/16.

Serration Cutting-9-2017 (2)

Serration Cutting-9-2017 (1)

I also built a fixture to sharpen the cutters on my surface grinder.  I can get about a dozen jaws cut before re-sharpening.

Serration Cutting-9-2017 (5)

The holder is custom made and I made it long enough to serrate a set of 9″ wide jaws.  I can cut 7″ deep with this holder.

Next I needed an angle fixture to hold all the different fixture plates. I made the angle plate from 1-1/4 thick aluminum, and it is solid.  The fixture plates are designed to hold the jaws at 30 degrees and made so when you are through the first cut then you rotate the jaws to the other side of the fixture plate to finish the diamond serrations.

Serrating 6 at a time (3)

 

Jaw sizes require different pitches and depth of cuts.  The pitch is the difference between cuts.  The baby 2″ jaws have a pitch of .050 between cuts where the 8″ jaws have .125 between cuts and are much deeper of a cut.  I like about .04 square diamond on the bigger jaws where the 2″ jaws have a .020 diamond flat.

Baby Jaws serration cutting

Fixturing for the straight serrations used on Yost and Starrett jaws should be a little more accurate.  Cutting a 6″ jaw and having the jaws just a little cocked will show a crooked serration.  I use pins that the jaws rest on to keep the cuts straight.  The Starrett jaws are shaped like an L, and after cutting the serrations, I remove the material on the back side before heat treating.

Cutting Starrett jaws (3)

The Wilton 6 inch and the 8 x 1-1/2 x 1 inch jaws like the Parker jaws have to be held by a special fixture that I hold the blocks by the back side.

8 inch Chas Parkers (7)

These 8″ Parker jaws first need the serrations cut before carving out the back side for final fitting.

The serrations are obviously an important part of the grip of jaws.  Cut serrations like these are old school and well worth the effort.  The newer style jaws made after the late 1970’s are from powdered metal injected into molds, so the serrations do not have to be cut.  This easier and faster method results in a brittle jaw that chips.  The quality of the newer style will never compare to the jaws built from tool steel by the vise companies of the past.

China Jaws and USA (2)

You can see the difference in a molded set and cut serrations. I do not have to mention which is which because it is so obvious.

 

Replacing Your Bench Vise Handle

Bench vise handles get abused almost as much as the jaws.  When it is time for a new handle, you may have an idea how you want to do it yourself, or you can purchase one from me.  I want to share the steps I use for building handles. My way is not the only way, it’s just my way.  Things to consider are whether the spindle needs any work,  which type of steel to use,  and the method of knob installation.

Communicating back and forth with a customer is so important.  It is easy to leave out critical details on the phone or in emails, which kills a lot of time on both ends.  That is why I share a drawing with each customer to hopefully clear up any discrepancies or uncertainty.  First, I rely on the customer to provide handle specs for  the overall length and knob style and even the knob diameter.  Then I create a drawing to be accepted by the owner.  The drawing shows how the handle is made and how the knob will be slid in place with the peening material beyond the knob.

The first area I look at is the spindle handle hole.  If the hole is worn from the handle sliding for many years of use, then I consider machining out the hole to the next larger size.

The picture shows a ratchet spindle off a Prentiss that is pretty worn on the sides.  It shows that a smaller handle was used and it wore out the edges.

It is tricky locating the hole by hand,  but with a top reading indicator in my CNC,  I can find the center and also align the hole straight up and down. If you miss getting the spindle straight up and down you will not clean up the hole.  I like leaving .015 clearance for the handle bar.

 

 

Next, I begin work on the handle itself.  I like using high-strength 1144 carbon steel from McMaster Carr. This stuff is easy to machine but also very strong.  It is a little springy, and actually very difficult to bend.  If you do bend this stuff, then you are using way too much pressure on your vise.

The handle is turned with a smaller diameter on the ends.  I like a 3/8″ diameter for any knob under 1″, 7/16″ diameter for knobs under 1-3/8″, and 1/2 inch for anything bigger.  I also leave at least a 1/4″ extra for peening. 

 

 

I studied handles from all the USA vise companies, and determined the most common method for peening the knobs on.  I like to leave around a 1/4″ of peen material beyond the knob.  Then I chamfer the knob pretty heavily for the peen material to fill.   Another quicker method is to weld the knobs on.  If I were in a hurry, I would choose TIG  with no filler.

Making the knob is pretty easy, especially if you have a metal lathe. I have found it is easier to cut steps in the ball before sanding the ball smooth. The steps are cut to the arc of the radius.  When you file, sand or grind the steps down to the cut lines from the lathe bit cuts has disappeared. 

Once I rough the front radius, the back radius is easy to match. I built a holding fixture to grab the knobs and I have it extended beyond a safe distance from the lathe chuck. Each knob is drilled and reamed for a precision hole and the fixture is machined and threaded for a flat head cap screw. The knob is bolted tight and then easily worked into shape.

When a customer receives their handle back  from me, they will need to peen the opposite end after it is installed in their spindle.  I use a 6″ vise with a square slider for the handle to rest while peening.   I also use copper caps or a delrin pad to grab the handle without marring the finish.  I also rest the finished handle on a piece of delrin, nylon or aluminum to save the finished knob from being damaged.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Next, I take my oxygen acetylene torch to heat the end before peening, I like to get it pretty red before hammering.  I use a hammer that feels comfortable and easily swung.  You do not need a big hammer because the red hot steel moves pretty easily. I like to keep the torch on the work the whole time while I am hammering, since this keeps the steel from oxidizing in the fits and the chamfer.  I tend to pound straight down and move the steel close then hammer at about a 15 degree angle all the way around the knob to form the steel to the chamfer real tight  .If you haven’t forged before, it’s just a matter of patiently pounding and shaping until it looks the way you like.  Don’t rush.  The pictures show the finished peening.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This is how I finish the knobs after they cool:  First I rough grind the excess steel down with my 6 x 48 belt sander.  Then I get closer with my 1″ wide ribbon sander. The rest is hand work on the bench. Using a DA gets the scratches off pretty quickly.  Using a smooth file and then going to 120 grit sand paper, then finishing up with the Scotch Brite pad that I supply with the order, will get the same finish that I gave on the first knob.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This is pretty much how I build handles. I also add a rubber bumper to all handles.  I make these myself since I can not find a supplier that carries the ones I like.  Give me a call if you have any questions, and good luck.

Pipe Jaw Building

Making pipe jaws were a challenge in the beginning. I wanted to support the old vises by making these jaws since you can’t find any new ones very easily. My first issue was how the heck do you measure them. I wanted to build these as close to originals as possible since some customers want to replace only one.

Back in my mold making days I had to figure out how to measure shapes that were curved and needed it very accurate. I did this with a microscope attached to my CNC. I like the Skoal scope shown in my picture, which is very affordable.

measuring-and-cutting-pipe-jaws-2

I used the readout on my CNC to create points at every intersection.  On this drawing of a Starrett 326 Pipe Jaw, I added small circles at every intersection where it is easy to connect the dots.starrett_326_pipe_jaws

After squaring up the A2 Tool Steel blocks, I rough in the large and small V section where the teeth go, as with this CO Wilton Pipe Jaw. I do this so when I cut the teeth so I am not removing too much material.  It keeps the cutters corners sharp.

dsc_0035

After carefully looking at the geometry created taken with the microscope, it became clear the teeth were rotated at 14 degrees and the teeth are cut at 90 degrees. The vise companies had special cutters made to cut the teeth at one swoop but I cannot afford to have a cutter of this size made or have room for a machine to handle this horizontal cut. Instead I made a special set of jaws to hold the pipe jaw at 14 degrees and use the corner of a 3/8 end mill and step down each cut.

Before I could do that, I needed the geometry and depth numbers so I could program my CNC. Here is a drawing I used for a American Scale Pipe Jaws. Looks more complicated than it really is.a-scale_pipe_jaws

As you can see in the drawing above, I color coded the geometry to help me in programming. After that, I pick up the pipe jaw noted here. When rotating blocks at a angle it becomes more difficult to locate the block. It is helpful to use a 1/2 inch gauge pin held on with a flat magnet and sweep in the pin center with a test indicator. I rotate the indicator 180 degrees then drop the indicator to hit the high point of the pin and rotate the indicator to  find the high spot, set the dial to zero and do the same 180 degrees on the other side of the pin till I have reached a zero reading finding the pin center. You could use a edge finder but I choose an indicator.

I also set the end mill to the top of the pin and that would be my Z-zero. All the numbers on the drawing are taken from the pin center line in the X axis (left to right) and the depth of the cut (Z-axis) is taken from the top of the pin.

picking-up-reed-pipe-jaws-2

After programming my CNC,  the rest is easy. Using a sharp carbide end mill I cut a roughing cut leaving .005 on the X-axis and .005 on the Z-axis, and then do a finish cut.

cutting-pipe-jaws-3

De-burr the entire jaw.  Send to heat treating and harden to 54/56 Rockwell.  Done.

making-pipe-jaws-20